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Jávea history: Roman Period

January 03 from 2013 - 16: 26

With the Second Punic War (219-201 ane) the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Rome begins. The "romanization", acculturation process, which transformed the indigenous society, into a new society governed by the same parameters of Rome began: its same laws, fashions.

Portixol Island Javea

Roman necropolis on the Mountain

At this time the "villas" are multiplied (with this name the non-urban settlements are known) throughout the Term of Jávea-Xàbia.

Most of them were in the Pla and Les Valls, in the fertile valley formed by the river Xaló or Gorgos, zone of great agricultural potential.

Agricultural production is the main economic activity, possibly centered on the cultivation of the vine (as seems to demonstrate the existence of workshops producing amphorae in which wine was packed for export.)
Next to the sea, we find three new sites from the Roman era: the Duana, the Punta del Arenal-Montañar and the island of Portitxol. In these settlements, contrary to what happened with the "villas" it was the commercial and manufacturing activities that undoubtedly prevailed over the agricultural ones.

The best known of them all is the Punta del Arenal, where archaeological excavations were carried out that provided valuable information on the salazonera industrial activity that was carried out in it and from which large deposits-nurseries excavated in the rock that communicate with the sea through two channels; rafts that are popularly known as "els Banys de la Reina". Thirteen quadrangular deposits were located next to these constructions, most of which had the walls covered by an impermeable mortar. In these small rafts the entrails of the fish or other parts of it were deposited with abundant salt. This led to a fermentation catalyzed by the sun, which resulted in the precious "garum" and / or other fish sauces that were then packaged in amphorae and distributed throughout the empire.

Roman amphora in Javea Old

Roman amphora in Javea

A few meters from the Punta del Arenal, the necropolis is Montañar-
"Muntanyar", extensive cemetery area of ​​that site, characterized by the fact that all its graves were excavated in the rock. On the importance of this burial necropolis, it is worth mentioning that the graves it contained are encrypted in 900. The chronology of this site coincides with the Punta del Arenal, that is, between shortly before the change of era and the seventh century of our era.
Related to the salazone industry we also have the "Séquia de la Noria", a large channel carved into the rock that crosses the second Montañar and that connects the sea with the Saladar, an area where there were some ancient salt flats dedicated to the production of the salt needed to The salting industry.

Quinto Sertorio He who knew no Spanish nor be entirely dared to stop being Romano.

Source : "HISTORY OF DENIA"Roque Chabás (1.874) Part I Chapter IV:
"... Here is the portrait of this famous captain (1) exempt Quinto Sertorio of the vile passions dishonoring the other heads of the people, he kept dragging or soften with delight, fear or revenge; generous rewards, punishments prudent, endowed with heroic courage, no Spanish better than he knew shortcuts and paths; No hunter overcame him running through the mountains; not yield to any master in the art of change tactics depending on the terrain and the enemy, to avoid encounters, pursue the enemy, lure him into an ambush, balance the power of armies with a handful of brave, to lead them to places, wherein the heavy legion unable to maneuver freely and are missed food and water.

Sila bust Javea

The Roman Quinto Sertorio with Falcata

Pompey relief of Javea Romana

Roman Coin rest of Quinto Sertorio

Dressed with splendid weapons, he cut the marches to the enemy, he disturbed the camps, he besieged the besiegers; sometimes he would appear in the enemy trenches and challenge the general, sometimes he would pass through disguised by his field; it was, in a word, a new Viriato.
He knew at the same time to win the affection of the Spaniards; if they fought, it provided them with beautiful currency and a lot of money; he had adopted even the suit, language and religion of the Spaniards.
It was the custom of the Spanish generals to have addicted squires, who died when they died; Sertorius had thousands of them, who in the midst of the dangers thought only of saving him. In order to obtain prompt obedience and a supernatural credit, he persuaded the Spaniards that he had received from the goddess Diana the gift of a white fawn, by which he made himself reveal the things of which good spies informed him, and to suggest what seemed appropriate in his prudence. . (2)
Other times indicated his to duty. soldiers in parables, which have much power in the vulgar spirits. (3).
This was the man that Spain needed. Only historians point out a flaw in his life that used to be completely or Spanish, or deiar dare to be Roman.
Metellus one of the ablest generals of Sila, nothing could against him, and the same with Sila died despite not being able to destroy the nest where malcontents everywhere rose against Rome took refuge.
Perpenna, another banned by the dictator comes to Spain with twenty thousand men; the prestige and fame of Sertorio worked the portent of his troops ask insistently join the idol of the Spaniards, and Perpenna, despite the evil that has to give in and submit to be the .segundo of Sertorio. Then their weapons quickly become more important, every day gaining ground troops Sertorio, which comes to dominate throughout the Iberian Peninsula.
It is cornered in Cordoba enlre both Metellus and Pompey, sent from Rome to the aid of the old general, had to transpose the Pyrenees; Sertorio indefatigable as ever, did not let them breathe, gave them time to re-provisioning.
The fortune of Quintus Sertorius rose to a point, and the fame of his exploits reached Asia. Mithridates, king of Pontus, who was looking everywhere for enemies of Rome, then dispatched ambassadors to request the alliance of Sertorius. (4) When these came from Synope in Pontus, they found Sertorius in Denia, where he had come, winning Valencia He passed. (74 before Jesus Christ.) These ambassadors had visited all the peoples of the Mediterranean, contrary to Rome, to call them to their destruction. So when they arrived at Dianio, where Sertorius was, after comparing him with Pyrrhus and Hannibal, they offered him in the name of the king of Pontus, a sum of three thousand talents and forty galleys equipped to fight the Romans in Spain, provided that he will send a reinforcement of troops, commanded by one of his best officers.
But Sertorio, faithful to the cause of his country, contestóles with dignity: "No I never acrecentaré my power to the detriment of the republic, Tell him, then, to save him Bithynia and Cappadocia, the Romans did not dispute him; but as to Asia Minor, I will not have to take an inch of land more than what has been agreed treaties "When this reply was communicated to Mithridates, he said," If such conditions imposed on us being found outlawed What if preside in Rome Senate deliberations "However cultivated his friendship, sent three thousand talents; the galleys, and Sertorio under the reservation expressed, sent a body of troops.
With reinforcements Perpenna and Mithridates, Sertorius came to gather an army of seventy thousand men, of whom there were eight thousand Spanish riders, organized Roman. Given the proper administration of Sertorio, was to have this great flow; with this and the money and ships the king of Pontus, we can ensure that this great general takes the necessary elements for success.
Establecióse Sertorio at first in the Lusitania, and then pressured him as the fortunes of war, laid his real first Celtiberia after the Edetania, and by the year 75 BC in Contestania. To provide safe shelter to their ships established in Denia naval station, as opposed to Cartagena, which was what the Romans .... "
"... Not only in the place aforementioned Strabo the importance of Denia noted, but later, describing the country of Ilergetes says that the last of these wars took place in the sea coast from Tarragona to Hēmeroskopeion such as pretending to insinuate that the last thing remained faithful to outlaw Sila were Denia and Contestani. And so much so that, as we shall see later, Cicero at the conclusion of this war did not believe he could have Sertorius but in Denia.
It retaking the thread of the narrative, we will say little of that great man, who for many years had been the hope of the Spaniards.
Sertorio prosperity had grown steadily and reached a prodigious height; but to see the summit of fortune, touching almost pined term many desires, their own supporters, wary of his power, and coveting usurp, destroy their dreams of glory and ruin themselves are prepared.
The time of misfortune Sertorio can be told briefly, and all of it is filled with black ingratitude and betrayals.
Metellus touts a fabulous amount of money and land, the head of him whom were not conquered; lléganle Pompey in many circumstances these troops, and starts to declare and spread desertion among Roman soldiers, who belonged to the Sertorian ranks. And all this comes on Sertorio at the same moment, when to make their golden dreams and be absolute master of the entire peninsula, just lacked make the last effort.
Anublar and then begin to disturb the imagination melancholy tired and somber Sertorio thousand black forebodings. Distrusting the loyalty of the Romans, the same suspicion makes dealing with harshness and severity. Trust, then, the guardian of his person exclusively to Spanish; but this preference Scythian those resentment and envy, which favors attrition. The edict of Metellus makes him see in each of those around him a conspirator, and his reason suffer cruel ravings, and black humor that dominates you makes it rough, tough, capricious and cruel, will quickly lose the gains that many fatigue cost him and the enemy take heart. Vése compelled to leave the Celtiberia and the Basque country; passes the coast of Tarragona, and finally comes to get under Denia, his square.
Badly resigned Perpenna to be the second of Sertorius, this occasion seems certain to conspire with fruit against his general and appealing to the most vile means, makes many officers enter the plot. "For the honor of Spain, says a foreign writer, (5) we must confess, that some of the conjured were Spanish: they were all Roman,»
To achieve its attempt to Sartorio Perpenna invites to a feast, with the apparent object of celebrating a false victory won over enemies. Immoderate joy and breakdown of attendees offend the honorable captain who, jilted, with his head in his hands resting on the table. Drop attempt then Perpenna a glass of wine, and advised with this signal the conspirators, is murdered in his own seat, with their sharp knives, (73 BC.) Wretched end of him who for eight years he had shaken the Roman power, and raised doubts whether the Roman Spain Spanish Roma serious or serious.
Whatever the place of death of Quinto Sertorio is fixed, it is still a problem. That Denia is the place where this general was killed I will not dare to affirm it in an absolute way; but I am convinced that this event happened in this city, or at least not far from it. ... ”
"... Having answered these reasons, it seems that Sertorio was most likely killed in our Denia, or at least not far from it, perhaps in Villajoyosa.
Sertorio dead Perpenna took possession of the coveted post of commander in chief of the sertorianas troops; but it was defeated by Pompey in the first encounter, perhaps near Denia, and wants Palau. The cowardly Perpenna had hidden in some bushes; discovered by soldiers, he wanted to appease the wrath of his enemy by presenting the letters, saying Sertorio written from Rome, by supporters of this; but Pompey burned the letters for fear, he said, for I see committed some illustrious citizen; condemned to death the traitor and some of his accomplices; others were killed by natural, or dragged in a miserable existence Africa.
The Spanish guard Sartorio, according to his oath, was killed; and in the blink of an eye, he was subjected throughout Spain. The ease with which ended this long war, testing, rather than the merits of Pompey, the Sertorius. "
"HISTORY OF DENIA" Roque Chabás (1.874) Part I Chapter IV
Author's notes:
(1) Cantú, place cited
(2) P1inio, lib, vil !, cap. XXXII
(3). "Wanting to dissuade his soldiers fighting precipitates, he sent for a vigorous steed and said to. a man of the tail robustosque him by force after he had vainly employed all his efforts, made her remove all. sow sow by a feeble old man, demonstrating that perseverance is worth more than. Violence. "C. Cantu, supra.
(4) Lafuente, place cited.-This seems to contradict something with what MT Ciceron indicates in sentence VI. De Suppliciis ch. XXXIV (edition of Lion 1679) where it says, that with one. Ship that C. Verres sold to LMagio and L. Rabio, Roman outlaws, ran to all the enemy peoples of the Roman name, plotting conspiracies, from Diario in Spain, to Sinope in Pontus .- "Hoc illi navigio ad omneispopuli Romani hosteis ab Dianio, quod in Hispania est, ad Sinopem, quae in Ponto est, navigaverunt ”_In any case, it is always the same for Denia. Perhaps from Dianio he would send. Sertorio the ambassadors a. Sinope and from there they would return with the conditions of Mithridates.
(5) Quoted Lafuente, parle 1, lib II cap IV

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